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Nadine Burzlauer

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Temperaturregulation bei Tieren - Sommer wie Winter

Posted on December 16, 2021 at 9:30 AM

Hunde & Katzen schwitzen nicht!

Sie besitzen einige wenige Schweißdrüsen an den Pfoten
Hunde nutzen das Hecheln um sich abzukühlen.
Katzen hingegen lecken großflächig ihr Fell und setzen auf den Verdunstungseffekt und hier und da wird das "hecheln" zusätzlich genutzt.

Im Winter setzt man auf Fellpflege.
> Eher länger als zu kurz halten, aber ganz sicher regelmäßig bürsten und trocken halten. Das dient vor allem
   der Eigenfettung, damit die Haut 
bei den Temperaturschwankungen nicht austrocknet.
> Alle Hunde, die kein Winterfell ausbilden, also besonders dichtes Deckhaar oder viel Unterwolle
   haben, 
sollte man mit einem Mäntelchen unterstützen & schützen. Auch bei Gelenkserkrankungen, Welpen
   oder Senioren ist dies anzuraten. Zudem neigen Rassen wie Dobermann, 
Windhund und Boxer dazu im
   Winter keine gute Wärmeregulation zu haben, aufgrund des kurzen Fells, weshalb ein Mantel hilfreich ist.
> Und absolut unerlässlich ist Bewegung. Bewegung bedeutet Energiegewinnung um die Körpertemperatur
   stabil zu halten.
> Woran erkennt man einen frierenden Hund?
   Zittern, krampfende Körperhaltung, ständiges Pfoten heben, langsames Tempo

------------------------------------

Von wegen Schwitzen wie ein Schwein - Schweine können das gar nicht. Ihre Schweißdrüsen befinden sich an der Rüsselscheibe.

Sei schlau sei ein Schwein und suhle dich mit Matsche ein! :) Jetzt wisst ihr warum sie sich so gern im Schlamm welzen oder auch gern auf kühlen Flächen rumliegen.

Im Winter setzt man bei Schweinen auf geschützte, trockene Bereiche, gut isoliert sind, dick eingestreut damit sie sich richtig eingraben können. Grundsätzlich frieren Schweine nicht und halten Temperaturen bis -20°C stand.

------------------------------------

Vögel nutzen viele Verfahren neben dem Klassiker "kühlendes Bad". Sie sitzen mit geöffneten Flügeln und lassen sich durch die leichte Brise Abkühlung bringen oder suchen schattige Plätze auf. Auch Kehlsackhecheln ist möglich, dann sitzen sie mit weit geöffneten Schnabel da und atmen schnell ein und wieder aus.

Vögel schaffen sich ihre eigene Daunenjacke, um so wenig wie möglich Wärme zu verlieren. Dazu plustern sie sich auf und wirken wie kleine Federbälle. Dies ist kein Zufall, sondern führt im Verhältnis zu einer kleineren Oberfläche, womit weniger Wärme verloren geht. Ein spezielles Wärmeaustauschsystem verhindert zudem den Wärmeverlust in dem das herabfließende Blut rechtzeitig seine Wärme an den Organismus abgibt, womit die Temperatur in den Beinen auf nahezu 0°C sinkt und damit ein erfrieren verhindert. An Sonnentagen tanken sie Sonnenenergie mit den dunklen Partien. In besonders kalten Nächten können sie ihre Körpertemperatur künstlich runter fahren und verfallen in eine Art Starre um sich zu schützen.

------------------------------------

Pferde haben das Glück sich über Schweißdrüsen abkühlen zu können, außerdem hilft ihnen die Atemluft.

Interessant ist die Thermoregulation im Winter - ein Zusammenspiel zwischen Pferdehaut, Fell, Blutgefäßen und Schweißdrüsen. Die Pferdehaut ist relativ dick, weshalb sie bereits gut isoliert. Winterfell ist eine weitere Unterstützung in der Thermoregulation. Desweiteren erhöhen sie ihre Stoffwechseltätigkeit um sich warm zu halten und steuern ihre Blutzirkulation sowie die Herzfrequenz. Der Herzschlag verlangsamt sich und die Gefäße ziehen sich zusammen, wodurch weniger Blut an die Körperoberfläche gelangt und somit weniger Wärme verloren geht.

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